10 Types of Plagiarism in Research
- SECONDARY SOURCES (Inaccurate citation)
Secondary Source Plagiarism happens when a researcher uses a secondary source like a meta study but only cites the primary sources contained within the secondary one. Secondary source plagiarism not only fails to attribute the work of the authors of the secondary sources but also provides a false sense of the amount of review that went into the research.
- INVALID SOURCES (Misleading citation, Fabrication, Falsification)
Invalid Source Attribution occurs when researchers reference either an incorrect or nonexistent source. Though this may be the result of sloppy research rather than intent to deceive, it can also be an attempt to increase the list of references and hide inadequate research.
- DUPLICATION (Self-plagiarism, Reuse)
Duplication happens when a researcher reuses work from their own previous studies and papers without attribution. The ethics of duplication is highly debated and often depends upon the content copied.
- PARAPHRASING (Plagiarism, Intellectual theft)
Paraphrasing is taking another person’s writing and changing the words, making it appears that an idea or even a piece of research is original when, in truth, it came from an uncited outside source. Paraphrasing ranges from simple rephrasing to completely rewriting content while maintaining the original idea or concept.
- REPETITIVE RESEARCH (Self-plagiarism, Reuse)
Repetitive Research Plagiarism is the repeating of data or text from a similar study with a similar methodology in a new study without proper attribution. This often happens when studies on a related topic are repeated with similar result but the earlier research is not cited properly.
- REPLICATION (Author Submission Violation)
Replication is the submission of a paper to multiple publications, resulting in the same manuscript being published more than once. This can be an ethical infraction, particularly when a researcher claims that a paper is new when it has been published elsewhere.
- MISLEADING ATTRIBUTION(Inaccurate Authorship)
Misleading Attribution is an inaccurate or insufficient list of authors who contributed to a manuscript. This happen when authors are denied credit for partial or significant contributions made to a study, or the opposite-when authors are cited in a paper although no contributions were made.
- UNETHICAL COLLABORATION (Inaccurate Authorship)
Unethical Collaboration happens when people who are working together violate a code of conduct. Using written work, outcomes and ideas that are the result of collaboration, without citing the collaborative nature of the study and participants involved, is unethical. Using others’ work without proper attribution is plagiarism.
- VERBATIM PLAGIARISM (Copy-and-Paste. Intellectual Theft)
Verbatim Plagiarism is the copying of another’s words and works without providing proper attribution, indentation or quotation marks. This can take two forms. First, plagiarists may cite the source they borrowed from, but no indicate that it’s a direct quote. In the second, no attribution at all is provided, essentially claiming the words of someone else to be their own.
- COMPLETE PLAGIARISM (Intellectual Theft, Stealing)
Complete plagiarism is an extreme scenario when a researcher takes a study, a manuscript or other work from another researcher and simply resubmits it under his/her own name
Eassom, H. (2013). 10 types of plagiarism in research. Retrieved from http://exchanges.wiley.com/blog/2015/11/12/10-types-of-plagiarism-in-research/